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Hypophysitis presented as inflammatory pseudotumor in immunoglobulin G4related systemic disease. Differential expression of cytokeratins 8 and 20 distinguishes craniopharyngioma from rathke cleft cyst. Clinical course and surgical prognosis of 33 instances of intracranial epidermoid tumors. Pituitary-specific knockout of the Carney advanced gene prkar1a results in pituitary tumorigenesis. Telomerase activity in pituitary adenomas: significance of telomerase expression in predicting pituitary adenoma recurrence. Distinct clonal composition of main and metastatic adrencorticotrophic hormoneproducing pituitary carcinoma. Sustained Notch signalling in progenitors is required for sequential emergence of distinct cell lineages throughout organogenesis. Deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase 3B promotes epigenetic silencing via histone 3 chromatin modifications in pituitary cells. Congenital gigantism because of progress hormone-releasing hormone extra and pituitary hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation. Rathke cleft cysts, that are topographically and pathogenically intently related to craniopharyngiomas, are coated individually in Pituitary and Suprasellar Tumours (Chapter 41). The epithelial cysts may be roughly divided into those of ectodermal (epidermoid, dermoid), neuroectodermal (ependymal, choroid plexus) and endodermal (Rathke cleft, colloid, neurenteric) origin. Secondary adjustments, such as epithelial atrophy, ulceration, squamous metaplasia and cyst rupture with haemorrhage, irritation and granuloma formation are widespread and will hinder precise classification. In others, both the diagnosis and affected person administration rely closely on a cautious radiologic workup to rule out connections between intracranial and extracranial contents. In the cranial vault, the frontal and parietal bones are most often involved and within the petrous area, they may cause facial paralysis and bone destruction. Large intradiploic variants often break through the inner desk and may destroy the outer table to cause soft-tissue swelling underneath the scalp. In addition to the similar old generalized signs and signs of elevated intracranial pressure, the widespread cerebellopontine selection most frequently presents with involvement of the facial nerve followed by unilateral listening to loss and different cranial nerve palsies. They could also be simply shelled out from adjacent structures or firmly anchored on account of local inflammation. Cysts in the ventricles or in the subarachnoid area are liable to rupture and trigger meningitis. The cut surface reveals an inside full of gentle, pasty to dry, flaky materials. Biological Behaviour Epidermoid cysts originate from the ectoderm, in common with dermoids. Cerebellopontine epidermoids derive from the first branchial groove, presumably from entrapped or misplaced migratory cells; that is similar to the derivation of acquired cholesteatomas in the ear. The therapy of alternative is surgery; complete resection is more frequent at present because of enhancements in microsurgery. This epithelial lining reproduces the normal layers of the dermis, complete with keratohyalin granules. The progressive production and desquamation of keratin outcome in the formation of concentric lamellae that fill the interior of the cyst, inflicting gradual enlargement. The lining occasionally may be papillary, however the typical squamous epithelium is maintained. They may be slightly extra common in males and barely youthful patients than epidermoids. Keratinizing squamous epithelium covers collagenous connective tissue containing pores and skin adnexal buildings. Colloid cysts have been reported in association with astrocytoma,26 the naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome,fifty eight nasal dermoid sinus,16 and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Familial colloid cysts are rare, although families with two or extra affected members ought to be screened, because an autosomal dominant inheritance has been advised.

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It is forecast that the variety of folks affected by dementia (already counted in tens of millions) will double each 20 years. Due to its intrinsic excessive sensitivity, metabolomics is a strong method for discovering novel biomarkers of the imbalance of important biochemical pathways for improving diagnosis, and for determining prognosis and optimum remedy. Important enhancements have just lately come from the development of metabolomic imaging to determine the alteration of biochemical pathways because of disease processes, even within the presence of pharmacological therapies. An necessary step is the definition of the performance of dwelling techniques: it can been defined as the ability of methods to recruit parts for his or her correct functioning and to organize them into subsystems making up a functional network, to optimize efficiency. Therefore, useful imaging can be defined as a way of optimizing the illustration of network properties into order to visualize functionality modifications associated to illness. Recently, the community of proteins, genes, and metabolites have come under examine to realize a visual illustration of the dynamic induced by the alteration of the properties of the elemental components of the network. The basic elements in a network are properly known as nodes and links, however the identification of these elements could be realized at different levels. Recently an elevated interest within the metabolic network has produced many studies attempting to define networking within the human metabolome [2]. This is just an introduction to the most important innovations in medical analysis derived from the metabolomics-based strategy: it may possibly establish alterations in mind functionalities, represented by a number of descriptors of network performances at an early stage of pathology and present in peripheral systems. The concept of techniques medicine is related to the essential fact that a human being is a set of interacting subsystems with capabilities and constructions at completely different scales. Each system within the residing being also can have its own interactions with its environment, and transmits all the information about these interactions to all the other methods. Environmental perturbation can propagate from one system to all the others; the system could respond with modulation and regularization of performance in order to hold the steadiness, or may be pushed towards a specific level of imbalance with a breakdown of the homeostasis mechanism. Informations flows from local methods to the peripheral and distant techniques, transported by short-range and long-range propagation mechanisms, affecting numerous completely different molecules performing at genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics ranges. This systemic theory is the biological framework describing the properties of living techniques as the outcomes of completely different sort of interactions of self-organized subsystems at totally different scales of aggregation. This is the perfect framework for a new kind of medicine based on the global, holistic, analysis of functionality in living methods. Functions and performance in living methods are described by advanced analytical methods for the illustration of the self-organization and self-similarity properties of networks, outlined as a highly interconnected assemblies of simpler parts reacting to internal and exterior modifications of the homeostatic state [3]. Information trade Cells, tissues, and organs can change informations to contribute to the worldwide functionality of dwelling beings. All the knowledge essential to preserve this functionality flows from system to system through biochemical connections. In this community of systems, the metabolome, the whole set of small-molecule metabolites (such as metabolic intermediates, hormones and other signalling molecules, and secondary metabolites) to be found inside a organic sample, represents the transport medium for this info. All systems exchange information even within the presence of pathological conditions, and this is the explanation for the interest in scientific metabolomics. Informations could be extracted from cells, tissues, and biofluids via a number of bodily strategies. All these analytical platforms may be considered complementary as a result of they are often utilized in different circumstances and so they can extract informations on a selected a half of metabolome of curiosity. This household of metabolites can be extracted from biofluids like urine or plasma by means of physicochemical procedures in several working conditions optimized to selectively decide up the molecules of interest. After extraction of the metabolites, samples are able to be processed for quantitative evaluation. These elements could be analysed using an appropriate approach to have the ability to report informations about completely different system reactions to pathology in vivo. Using complicated constructions of nerves and different varieties of neurons, the nervous system carries messages to and from the mind and spinal twine and to and from numerous components of the body. By means of those connections, the nervous system manages the sending, receiving, and interpretation of data from organs, tissues, and cells in each a half of the physique. The nervous system operates control over all functions of internal organs and responds to modifications in the exterior setting. Some cranial nerves comprise only sensory neurons, but most cranial nerves and all spinal nerves include each motor and sensory neurons. The informations flowing via all these connections and buildings encompass electrical and molecular signals. Molecular rebalancing in the interplay between the nervous system, the inner methods of the body, and the exterior setting can be associated to phenomena with a time scale starting from milliseconds to months or years. The query is: is it potential to seize photos of this dynamic via metabolomics

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Intracranially, just throughout the region of where the soft tissue swelling occurred, a small quantity of floor haemorrhage can be seen (dark arrow). By eight days after injury distinct focal oedema can be noticed which was now not observed by 9 weeks after damage. By four years after injury residual haemosiderin in the website of the floor contusion may be identified. Using this system, spectroscopic adjustments had been detected for an extended period of time after an harm, even past when the athlete was reporting any symptom. Findings corresponding to these implicate inflammatory responses that persist beyond the preliminary injury. By 7 days after harm localized swelling has considerably subsided, giving method to necrotic modifications expressed as cortical thinning and ventricular expansion (hydrocephalus ex vacuo). The inflammatory response performs a job in neuroprotection in addition to neurodegeneration [50], however for the purposes of this chapter the primary focus is on the neurodegeneration facet of the injury. Any injury to mitochondrial function could end in metabolic mobile dysfunction and even failure and lack of neuronal function. Each field is the imply worth decided in 30 wholesome controls and 40 concussed athletes. Tissue disruption was seen early after harm, with ventral shift of the corpus callosum (open arrow, D0) and frequent small intraparenchymal haemorrhages (line arrow, D0). On D1 and D3, ipsilateral cortical oedema was visible as a diffuse tissue hyperintensity (open arrow, D1), and brain swelling was indicated by a midline shift (line arrows, D3). By D7 the swelling had subsided, giving approach to ipsilateral cortical thinning (line arrows, D7) and ventricular enlargement (open arrow, D7). By D14 a cortical contusion cyst had developed, full of hyperintense cerebrospinal fluid (line arrow, D14) and/or hypointense blood products (open arrow, D14). J cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official J the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 2012;32(12): 2122�34. The resected tissue could possibly be categorized as near the centre of the contusion, in the course of the periphery of the contusion, and in what could be categorized because the penumbral space, outdoors the first contusional site. Although probably the most distinct mitochondrial abnormalities have been seen closer to the site of focal injury, mitochondrial abnormalities had been evident in all three areas. Particularly weak areas for initial degeneration after harm Focal parenchymal loss A variety of studies have demonstrated that the frontotemporal areas of the brain are the commonest regions that maintain contusion, in giant part because of the situation and configuration of bony ridges related to the three cranial fossas [54]. The sturdiness of the falx, along with its proximity to the corpus callosum, implies that deformation might occur along the sting of the falx and that this may create higher shear�strain�mechanical deformation because the falx acts as a fulcrum. The axial T1 image in the lower left image reveals a generally symmetric showing structural picture. Similarly, as shown on the proper, the best likelihood of cortical thinning happens in frontotemporal areas as well. Strictly from the point of view of look, hippocampal atrophy from trauma may be onerous to distinguish from that which occurs in main neurodegenerative issues in elderly patients. Images at the lower right show the comparison of the hippocampal formation within the control adolescent in comparability with the individual with hippocampal atrophy. Age-mediated adjustments additionally relate to slowed velocity of processing and talent to carry out reminiscence and executive functioning tasks [70]. What is especially essential about these cognitive changes is that they coincide directly, and at the same rate as brain quantity loss with the typical ageing process [71]. This is demonstrated in Long-term degeneration-the foundation for increased threat of dementia later in life Note that the age at which a person is injured occurs not in a static mind, but rather in a mind that has age-dependent modifications occurring simultaneously with the age when damage occurs. As alluded to above, both the regional and non-specific degenerative results that occur within the acute to subacute timeframe could proceed well into the continual section after damage. If persistent effects affect age-mediated changes over the lifespan then the effects of harm earlier in life could affect cognitive and mind reserve later in life and influence neurodegeneration later in life.

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The cerebellar microcircuit as an adaptive filter: experimental and computational evidence. Pathogenic mechanisms of a polyglutaminemediated neurodegenerative illness, spinocerebellar ataxia sort 1. Mutation in the catalytic domain of protein kinase C gamma and extension of the phenotype related to spinocerebellar ataxia kind 14. A mutation in the fibroblast development issue 14 gene is related to autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia [corrected]. An in vivo examine utilizing voxel-based morphometry, histogram evaluation of mean diffusivity and tract-based spatial statistics. Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias: scientific features, genetics, and pathogenesis. Short-echo, single-shot, full-intensity proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for neurochemical profiling at 4 T: Validation in the cerebellum and brainstem. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging reveals variations in spinocerebellar ataxia varieties 2 and 6. Distinct neurochemical profiles of spinocerebellar ataxias 1, 2, 6, and cerebellar a number of system atrophy. Moderate expansion of a normally biallelic trinucleotide repeat in spinocerebellar ataxia sort 2. Spinocerebellar ataxia kind 6: gaze-evoked and vertical nystagmus, Purkinje cell degeneration, and variable age of onset. A practical strategy to late-onset cerebellar ataxia: putting the disorder with lack of order into order. Loss of intrinsic group of cerebellar networks in spinocerebellar ataxia kind 1: correlates with disease severity and duration. Magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers in sufferers with progressive ataxia: current standing and future path. Voxel-based morphometry: an automated approach for assessing structural changes within the brain. Dissociation of gray and white matter discount in spinocerebellar ataxia kind 3 and 6: a voxel-based morphometry research. Visualization and quantification of illness development in multiple system atrophy. Visualization, quantification and correlation of mind atrophy with scientific signs in spinocerebellar ataxia sorts 1, three and 6. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in an Italian household with spinocerebellar ataxia kind 1. Characteristic sign changes within the pontine base on T2- and multishot diffusion-weighted pictures in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1. Patterns of fractional anisotropy changes in white matter of cerebellar peduncles distinguish spinocerebellar ataxia-1 from a number of system atrophy and other ataxia syndromes. Distinct and overlapping practical zones within the cerebellum defined by resting state useful connectivity. Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebellar-prefrontal and cerebellar-parietal functional connectivity. Segregated fronto-cerebellar circuits revealed by intrinsic useful connectivity. The compartmentalization of the monkey and rat cerebellar cortex: zebrin I and cytochrome oxidase. Differential distribution of aldolase A and C within the human central nervous system. Topography of olivo-cortico-nuclear modules in the intermediate cerebellum of the rat. Identification of aldolase C compartments within the mouse cerebellar cortex by olivocerebellar labeling. Molecular, topographic, and useful organization of the cerebellar cortex: a study with mixed aldolase C and olivocerebellar labeling. In vivo structural imaging of the cerebellum, the contribution of ultra-high fields. A important analysis of present staging of alpha-synuclein pathology in Lewy physique problems. Regional and cellular pathology in frontotemporal dementia: relationship to stage of disease in circumstances with and with out Pick our bodies.

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Expression of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and urokinase plasminogen activator in human meningiomas. Anterior visual pathway meningiomas primarily resected between 1978 and 1988: the Mayo Clinic Rochester expertise. Primarily resected meningiomas: outcome and prognostic components in 581 Mayo Clinic patients, 1978 via 1988. Unbalanced translocation t(1;3)(p12�13;q11) in meningiomas as the unique feature of chordoid differentiation. Clinical options and immunohistochemical expression ranges of androgen, estrogen, progesterone and Ki-67 receptors in relationship with grosstotal resected meningiomas relapse. Pediatric meningiomas in the Netherlands 1974�2010: a descriptive epidemiological case examine. Molecular characterization of human meningiomas by gene expression profiling using highdensity oligonucleotide microarrays. Analysis of genomic alterations in benign, atypical, and anaplastic meningiomas: towards a genetic mannequin of meningioma development. Quantitative evaluation of neurofibromatosis kind 2 gene transcripts in meningiomas supports the idea of distinct molecular variants. Progesteronereceptor index in meningiomas: correlation with clinico-pathological parameters and evaluation of the literature. Microarray-based gene expression profiling of benign, atypical and anaplastic meningiomas identifies novel genes a hundred and fifty five. Lipomatous meningioma: a clinicopathologic study of 18 circumstances with particular reference to the problem of metaplasia. Immunohistochemical determination of 5 somatostatin receptors in meningioma reveals frequent overexpression of somatostatin receptor subtype sst2A. Atypical and anaplastic meningiomas: prognostic implications of clinicopathological features. Clinical and epidemiologic traits of first main tumors of the central nervous system and associated organs among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1958�1995. Intranuclear inclusions of meningioma associated with irregular cytoskeletal protein expression. Peritumoral brain edema related to meningioma: affect of vascular endothelial progress issue expression and vascular blood supply. Meningioma: a cytogenetic mannequin of a complex benign human tumor, together with knowledge on 394 karyotyped circumstances. Clinicopathological analysis of rhabdoid meningiomas: report of 12 cases and a scientific evaluation of the literature. As a common rule, they share histologic, immunohistochemical and molecular alterations with their delicate tissue and bone counterparts. Showing neither true meningothelial nor pericytic differentiation, its histogenesis remains a mystery. A reticulin-rich network surrounding particular person tumour cells is normally current, though with significant intertumoural and intratumoural variability. Claudin-1 seems to be a extra specific, although not especially delicate, marker for meningiomas. The tumour contains multiple sign voids, indicating the extremely vascular nature of the lesion. Up to 10�15 per cent show malignant behaviour with local recurrence, cerebrospinal fluid dissemination or metastatic illness. Meningeal sarcomas occur preferentially in youthful patients, including kids, and with out apparent intercourse predilections. Most are clearly related to the dura or leptomeninges, and the base of the cranium is a standard sight. Historically, only some variants of meningeal sarcoma had been recognized, with the descriptive names of fibrosarcomas, spindle cell sarcomas and polymorphic cell sarcomas. At the low grade end of the spectrum are cavernous haemangiomas, comprised of thin-walled gaping vascular channels lined by a single layer of bland endothelium. Most frequently presenting with seizures as a supratentorial intraparenchymal lesion with a surrounding rim of microhaemorrhage and hemosiderin deposition, cavernous haemangioma has on rare occasions been encountered arising from the dura on the flooring of the center cranial fossa.

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Fatty acids are chemically classified as carboxylic acids and are distinguished by the presence of a carboxyl group. Unsaturated fat differ from saturated fats by the presence of double bonds in their fatty acids. The fatty acids of unsaturated fats may be monounsaturated, whereby the fatty acid has a single double bond, or they could be polyunsaturated, containing multiple double bond. Most fatty acids have carbon chains containing from 12 to 20 carbon atoms and have a good number of carbons. Chemically, the configuration of double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids may be cis or trans. Double bonds fashioned in fatty acids from human metabolic enzymes have the cis configuration. Most naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids in nature comprise bonds with cis configurations. One effect of cis configured double bonds in fatty acids is to introduce a bend in the construction. The departure from linearity makes it harder for cis-unsaturated fatty acids to work together with other fatty acid molecules by way of dispersion forces, thereby decreasing the melting point. Fats containing cis-fatty acids or containing shorter chain saturated fatty acids additionally are inclined to have lower melting factors tending to be liquids at room temperature. Because trans fat can more effectively pack together within the solid state, they extra readily kind plaques on artery partitions. In addition, human cells lack the metabolic enzymatic equipment to course of trans fat successfully so that their circulating half-lives are prolonged, thus additional contributing to arterial plaque formation. A carbon atom proven with three bonds shown in a skeletal structure additionally has a fourth bond to a hydrogen atom. According to systematic naming, the carboxyl carbon is assigned as C1, with numbering ascending alongside the chain. According to frequent nomenclature, the carbon atoms after the carboxyl carbon are designated with sequential Greek characters, and so on. Biochemists frequently use a shorthand notation when referring to fatty acids by which the variety of carbon atoms is listed first adopted by a colon and the variety of double bonds in the fatty acid after which a listing of the positions and configurations of the double bonds. Configurations of double bonds may be both cis or trans and are indicated with c or t, respectively. Most double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids naturally occur with cis configuration so that fatty acids containing solely cis double bonds can be written, omitting cis designation. The essential fatty acids are precursors of lipids with diverse physiological features. An essential class of lipids involved in inflammation, the prostaglandins, is synthesized from arachidonic acid. Natural sources of linoleic acid include safflower oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and corn oil. Essential amino acid Phenylalanine beneficial results for some human problems associated with inflammation. The fat from marine animals have higher quantities of longer carbon chain fatty acids and with higher levels of unsaturation when in comparability with mammalian fat. Proteins within the human body are constructed from 20 -amino acids, though some modified amino acids do happen in human proteins. The -amino group of an amino acid is located on carbon 2 of the amino acid, which is commonly designated because the -carbon. Except for the simplest amino acid, glycine, the -amino acids exhibit optical isomerism and can exist in the D or L configuration. From a nutritional perspective, proteins may be categorized as important or nonessential. Nonessential amino acids can be synthesized within the body and important amino acids should be supplied in the food regimen. Because proteins are synthesized from constituent amino acids which would possibly be linked collectively sequentially, all the amino acid residues required for the polypeptide chain of a protein to be synthesized should be out there on the time of synthesis.

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Mouton the Structure and Physiology of the Rat Auditory System: An Overview Manuel Malmierca Neurobiology of Cat and Human Sexual Behavior Gert Holstege and J. Meador-Woodruff the Synaptic Pathology of Schizophrenia: Is Aberrant Neurodevelopment and Plasticity to Blame Eastwood 356 Neurochemical Basis for an Epigenetic Vision of Synaptic Organization E. Guidotti Muscarinic Receptors in Schizophrenia: Is There a Role for Synaptic Plasticity Kyosseva Postsynaptic Density Scaffolding Proteins at Excitatory Synapse and Disorders of Synaptic Plasticity: Implications for Human Behavior Pathologies Andrea de Bartolomeis and Germano Fiore Prostaglandin-Mediated Signaling in Schizophrenia S. Davis Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and the Plasticity of the Mesolimbic Dopamine Pathway Oliver Guillin, Nathalie Griffon, Jorge Diaz, Bernard Le Foll, Erwan Bezard, Christian Gross, Chris Lammers, Holger Stark, Patrick Carroll, JeanCharles Schwartz, and Pierre Sokoloff S100B in Schizophrenic Psychosis Matthias Rothermundt, Gerald Ponath, and Volker Arolt Volume 61 Section I: High-Throughput Technologies Biomarker Discovery Using Molecular Profiling Approaches Stephen J. Woodard Disturbances of Emotion Regulation after Focal Brain Lesions Antoine Bechara the Use of Caenorhabditis elegans in Molecular Neuropharmacology Jill C. Snyder, Feng Gao, Tom Stiger, Christian Rohlff, Athula Herath, Trey Sunderland, Karen Putnam, and W. Wang, Andrew Ottens, William Haskins, Ming Cheng Liu, Firas Kobeissy, Nancy Denslow, SuShing Chen, and Ronald L. Thompson Neuroimaging Databases as a Resource for Scientific Discovery John Darrell Van Horn, John Wolfe, Autumn Agnoli, Jeffrey Woodward, Michael Schmitt, James Dobson, Sarene Schumacher, and Bennet Vance Modeling Brain Responses Karl J. Detre, and Jiongjiong Wang Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Potential and Limitations in Neuroimaging Studies Yoko Hoshi Neural Modeling and Functional Brain Imaging: the Interplay Between the Data-Fitting and Simulation Approaches Barry Horwitz and Michael F. Bloomgarden Antidepressant-Induced Manic Conversion: A Developmentally Informed Synthesis of the Literature Christine J. Leckman, Christopher Young, and AndrEs Martin Sites of Alcohol and Volatile Anesthetic Action on Glycine Receptors Ingrid A. Adron Harris Role of the Orbitofrontal Cortex in Reinforcement Processing and Inhibitory Control: Evidence from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies in Healthy Human Subjects Rebecca Elliott and Bill Deakin Common Substrates of Dysphoria in Stimulant Drug Abuse and Primary Depression: Therapeutic Targets Kate Baicy, Carrie E. Friederici Combining Magnetoencephalography and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Klaus Mathiak and Andreas J. Barnes Functional Connectivity Analysis Magnetoencephalography Alfons Schnitzler and Joachim Gross in Volume sixty seven Distinguishing Neural Substrates of Heterogeneity Among Anxiety Disorders Jack B. Dougall Prefrontal and Anterior Cingulate Contributions to Volition in Depression Jack B. Wood Neuroimaging in Multiple Sclerosis Alireza Minagar, Eduardo Gonzalez-Toledo, James Pinkston, and Stephen L. Hall, Robyn Lints, and Zeynep Altun Investigations of Learning and Memory in Caenorhabditis elegans Andrew C. Rankin Neural Specification and Differentiation Eric Aamodt and Stephanie Aamodt Sexual Behavior of the Caenorhabditis elegans Male Scott W. Davis Neural Mechanisms for Spectral Analysis within the Auditory Midbrain, Thalamus, and Cortex Monty A. Sutter Processing of Dynamic Spectral Properties of Sounds Adrian Rees and Manuel S. Rout and Neuro- Spectral Information in Sound Localization Simon Carlile, Russell Martin, and Ken McAnally Plasticity of Spectral Processing Dexter R. Ruggiero Immunological Findings in Autism Hari Har Parshad Cohly and Asit Panja Contents of Recent Volumes 361 Shared Susceptibility Region on Chromosome 15 Between Autism and Catatonia Yvon C. Chagnon Current Trends in Behavioral Interventions for Children with Autism Dorothy Scattone and Kimberly R. Knight Case Reports with a Child Psychiatric Exploration of Catatonia, Autism, and Delirium Jan N. Zaw Catatonia in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Medical Treatment Algorithm Max Fink, Michael A. De Raeymaecker the Importance of Catatonia and Stereotypies in Autistic Spectrum Disorders Laura Stoppelbein, Leilani Greening, and Angelina Kakooza Prader�Willi Syndrome: Atypical Psychoses and Motor Dysfunctions Willem M. Verhoeven and Siegfried Tuinier Towards a Valid Nosography and Psychopathology of Catatonia in Children and Adolescents David Cohen Is There a Common Neuronal Basis for Autism and Catatonia Owen Characterization of Proteome of Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Jing Xu, Jinzhi Chen, Elaine R.


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